There are numerous ceremonies in Bali, some are public, others private.
There are five different categories of ceremonies known as the “Panca Yadnya”.There are five different rituals for:
1. Dewa Yadnya – rituals for the gods
2. Bhuta Yadnya – rituals for the spirits
3. Pitra Yadnya – rituals for the ancestors
4. Rsi Yadnya – rituals dedicated to priests
5. Manusa Yadnya – rituals dedicated to people
1.) THE GODS (dewa yadnya)
This ritual is a ceremony dedicated to the gods. It takes place in the temple. An example would be a temple anniversary called Odalan, which take place in every 210 days or 6 months of Balinese calendar.
2.) EVIL SPIRITS (bhuta yadnya)
Demons are personifications of forces derived from the five elements. The purpose of ceremonies and rituals for demons are to calm them down and bringing harmony to the world. The Taur kasanga purification sacrifice ceremony for demons takes place at the Besakih temple and at other temples on the island every last day of the lunar year.
3.) THE HIGHER SPIRITS / SOUL (pitra yadnya)
This ritual is a ceremony performed during the Ngaben cremation procession. It is dedicated to the ancestors and the spirit or soul of someone who has died. The aim is the soul will be purified to a deity and ancestors who are considered to have been reincarnated.
4.) THE CONSECRATION OF PRIESTS AND PRIESTESSES (rsi yadnya)
Balinese people who have proficient understanding in the Vedas will be purified during the Rsi Yadnya ceremony and consecrated as priests or holy people to conduct rituals and to spirituality lead the people.
5.) HUMANS (manusa yadnya)
These are rites of passage ceremonies from conception to just before death, such as pre-natal rites, birth ceremonies, the 12-day, 42-day and three-month-old baby ceremonies, tooth-filing and marriage.There are rituals for everything imaginable – from giving birth, obtaining knowledge, establishing a company, moving into a house, to getting married – all of different types and levels.
BALI SPIRITUAL EXPLANATION
The spirituality of Balinese people is strongly influenced by deep and devoted rituals in temples. Almost each day, Hindu Balinese offer an offering to Gods.
It is believed energy is coming from three different worlds: ‘Bhur’ the bottom world (negative or evil energy), ‘Bwah’ the middle world (natural or human energy), and ‘Swah’ the upper world (positive or the God energy).
Rituals consist of calling down the gods and the ancestors from their heavenly abode above the mountain, entertaining them with dances and celebrating them with offerings for both good and evil gods to be in harmony.
It is awesome to observe beautifuly magic dressed woomen wear their colorful abundant offerings on the top of their head during temple festivals.